Links

So many pages to read, so little time...

General

Java

The most popular programming language in the world (according to the TIOBE Index).

JavaScript

The only choice for client-side web programming (and tenth most popular language in the world).

General

Object-Orientation

Prolog

The fortysixth most popular programming language in the world. But still my favourite.

C#

Microsoft's version of Java for Windows (and sixth most popular language in the world).

Learning to Code

I suggest you start with Scott Hanselman's blog post A Coder, a Programmer, a Hacker, a Developer, and a Computer Scientist Walk into a Venn Diagram. Then read Peter Norvig's classic article Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years :-)

Actually, there are a number of good sites for learning programming from scratch: